• February 3, 2023

Former Nigerian deputy senate president in court accused of organ harvesting in UK

Nigeria’s former deputy senate president and his wife appeared in a London court on Tuesday (Jan. 31) ahead of their trial for organ harvesting, but his accused daughter was unable to …

UN warns of sub-standard medicines being sold in Sahel region

Up to half of the medicines available in the Sahel region are either sub-standard or out of date, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has warned. The inferior …

Chadian president meets Israeli PM ahead of embassy opening

Chadian president Mahamat Deby met with Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu Wednesday. Mahamat Deby is visiting Israel to open the central African nation’s embassy in the Jewish state, building on their …

Historians believe that the original inhabitants of Côte d’Ivoire were all either displaced or absorbed by the ancestors of the present inhabitants, because little is known about their origin. The first recorded history is found in the chronicles of North African Muslim traders, who, from early Roman times, conducted a caravan trade across the Sahara in salt, slaves, gold, and other items. The southern terminals of the trans-Saharan trade routes were located on the edge of the desert, and from there supplemental trade extended as far south as the edge of the rain forest.

Djenné, Gao, and Timbuctu are the more important terminals that grew into major commercial centers around which the great Sudanic empires developed. By controlling the trade routes with their powerful military forces, these empires were able to dominate neighboring states. The Sudanic empires also became centers of Islamic learning. Islam had been introduced into the western Sudan by Arab traders from North Africa and spread rapidly after the conversion of many important rulers. From the eleventh century, by this time the rulers of the Sudanic empires had embraced Islam, it spread south into the northern areas of contemporary Ivory Coast.

Ghana, the earliest of the Sudanic empires, flourished in present-day eastern Mauritania from the fourth to the thirteenth century. At the peak of its power in the eleventh century, its realms extended from the Atlantic Ocean to Timbuctu. After the decline of Ghana, the Mali Empire grew into a powerful Muslim state, which reached its apogee in the early part of the fourteenth century. The territory of the Mali Empire in Ivory Coast was limited to the northwest corner around Odienné. Its slow decline starting at the end of the fourteenth century followed internal discord and revolts by vassal states, one of which, Songhai, flourished as an empire between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Notwithstanding, Songhai was also weakened by internal discord, which led to factional warfare. This discord spurred most of the migrations of peoples southward toward the forest belt. The dense rain forest covering the southern half of the country created barriers to large-scale political organizations as seen further north. Some inhabitants lived in villages or clusters of villages whose contacts with the outside world were filtered through long-distance traders. By the virtue of this, there is not only commercial interaction their cultures also interact. Villagers subsisted on agriculture and hunting.

In the pre-European era there were five important states that flourished in Ivory Coast. The Muslim Kong Empire was established by the Juula in the early eighteenth century in the north-central region inhabited by the Sénoufo, who had fled Islamization under the Mali Empire. Although Kong became a prosperous center of agriculture, trade, and crafts, ethnic diversity and religious discord gradually weakened the kingdom. The city of Kong was destroyed in 1895 by Samori Touré. The Abron kingdom of Jaman was established in the seventeenth century by an Akan group, the Abron, who had fled the developing Asante confederation in what is present-day Ghana.

The Abron gradually extended their hegemony over the Juula in Bondoukou, from their settlement on the south of Bondoukou. These were recent émigrés from the market city of Begho. Bondoukou developed into a major center of commerce and Islam. The kingdom’s Quranic scholars attracted students from all parts of West Africa. In the mid-eighteenth century in east-central Ivory Coast, other Akan groups fleeing the Asante established a Baoulé kingdom at Sakasso and two Agni kingdoms, Indénié and Sanwi. The Baoulé, like the Asante, elaborated a highly centralized political and administrative structure under three successive rulers, but it finally split into smaller chiefdoms.

Despite the breakup of their kingdom, the Baoulé strongly resisted French subjugation. The descendants of the rulers of the Agni kingdoms tried to retain their separate identity long after Ivory Coast’s independence; as late as 1969, the Sanwi of Krinjabo attempted to break away from Ivory Coast and form an independent kingdom. The living and existence of man is subject to change from time to time. Change constitutes a important part of human living that if man does not embrace in the right way, man will deny himself the necessary beauty of life. Even though, change from external communities are not welcomed, internal change will not always be defeated.

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