• January 27, 2023

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first, its greater sophistication in terms of language and the interpenetration of language and research; secondly, its attempt to follow the modern example of science in empirical spirit, rigour, attention to detail, respect for alternatives and objectivity of method, and thirdly, its use of symbolic logic techniques; which have only been fully developed in the last fifty years. It`s. This union of the scientific mind and the logical method is applied to the clarification of the fundamental ideas that characterize contemporary analytic philosophy [and should characterize the analytic philosophy of education]. (Scheffler 1973 [1989: 9-10]) Overall, a good holistic education can include studies of experiences relevant to personal, intellectual, social, physical and spiritual development; work, vocation and employment; citizenship and community engagement; and creativity, aesthetic appreciation and cultural awareness. The purpose of medieval education was an overtly religious one, primarily concerned with the discovery of transcendental truths that would bring a person back to God through a life of moral and religious choices (Kreeft 15). The vehicle used to expose these truths was dialectical: Heidegger`s philosophy on education referred mainly to higher education. He believed that teaching and research should be united with the university and aim to test and challenge the “ontological assumptions that implicitly guide research in any field of knowledge.” [35] Conceptual analysis, careful evaluation of arguments, elimination of ambiguities, establishment of clear distinctions – which are at least part of the philosophical toolbox – have been respected activities within philosophy since the beginning of the field. Undoubtedly, it oversimplifies the complex path of intellectual history to suggest that what happened in the twentieth century—at first, in the domestic discipline itself, and with a delay of a decade or more, in the philosophy of education—is that philosophical analysis was considered by some scholars to be the main philosophical activity (or set of activities). or even as the only practicable or serious activity. Nevertheless, while they were gaining prominence and during a period of hegemonic influence during the rise of analytic philosophy in the early twentieth century, analytical techniques dominated the philosophy of education in the middle of the third of this century (Curren, Robertson and Hager 2003). An educational philosophy can influence the subjects or subjects taught, how they are taught, and perhaps most importantly, the beliefs and supporting values taught implicitly and explicitly in and around the core curriculum. William Heard Kilpatrick was an American philosopher of education and a colleague and successor of John Dewey. He was an important figure in the progressive education movement of the early 20th century.

Kilpatrick developed the Early Childhood Education Project Method, a form of progressive pedagogy that organized curricula and teaching activities around the central theme of a subject. He believed that the role of a teacher should be that of a “leader” as opposed to an authoritarian figure. Kilpatrick believed that children should base their own learning on their interests, explore their environment and experience their learning through the natural senses. [33] Proponents of progressive pedagogy and the project method reject a traditional school that relies on memorization, memorization, strictly organized classes (row boards; Students always seated) and typical forms of assessment. “Rousseau divides development into five phases (each dedicated to a book). Education in the first two stages seeks the senses: it is only around the age of 12 that Émile begins to work to develop his mind. Later, in Volume 5, Rousseau examines the education of Sophie (who is to marry Emile). [29] Here he sets out what he considers to be the essential differences arising from gender. “Man must be strong and active; the woman must be weak and passive” (Everyman edn: 322). This difference results in contrasting training. They should not be brought up in ignorance and forced to clean up: nature means that they think, want, love, cultivate their mind and person; He puts these weapons in their hands to compensate for their lack of strength and allow them to direct the strength of the people. They must learn many things, but only what suits them` (Jedermann edn.: 327).

Emile Locke also wrote that “small, almost insensitive impressions of our early childhoods have very important and lasting consequences.” [24] He argued that “associations of ideas” made at a young age are more important than later ones because they are the basis of the self: they are, in other words, what characterizes tabula rasa in the first place. For example, in his essay introducing these two concepts, Locke warns against letting “a mad maid” convince a child that “goblins and ghosts” are associated with the night, because “darkness will always bring these terrible ideas later, and they will be so bound that he cannot bear one more than the other.” [25] The defining idea of virtue ethics is that our criterion of moral good and evil must come from an idea of how the ideally virtuous agent would distinguish between the two. The ethics of virtue is therefore an alternative to both consequentialism and deontology, which locate the relevant criterion in the production of good consequences or compliance with the requirements of moral duty. The debate on the comparative merits of these theories is not resolved, but from a pedagogical point of view perhaps less important than it sometimes seemed to the antagonists of the debate. Certainly, judging between competing theories in normative ethics might shed light on how best to interpret the process of moral education, and philosophical reflection on the process could help us choose between theories. There are many books on addiction and virtue that draw heavily on Aristotle (Burnyeat 1980; Peters, 1981). But that this does anything to establish the superiority of virtue ethics over its competitors is far from obvious. Other aspects of moral education – particularly the twin processes of pattern and identification – deserve much more attention than they have received (Audi 2017; Kristjánsson 2015, 2017).

For example, philosophers of education examine what constitutes education and education, the values and norms revealed by education and educational practices, the limits and legitimation of education as an academic discipline, and the relationship between the theory and practice of education. At the age of 20, a selection was made. The best students would take an advanced course in mathematics, geometry, astronomy and harmony. The first course in the higher education system would last ten years. It would be for those who had a flair for science. At the age of 30, there would be another selection; Those who qualified would study dialectics and metaphysics, logic and philosophy for the next five years. After accepting junior positions in the army for 15 years, one man reportedly completed his theoretical and practical training at the age of 50. First, there is a lively debate about supposed epistemic goals. Alvin Goldman argues that truth (or knowledge understood in the “weak” sense of true faith) is the fundamental epistemic goal of education (Goldman 1999). Others, including the majority of historically important educational philosophers, argue that critical thinking or rationality and rational belief (or knowledge in the “strong” sense, which includes justification) is the basic epistemic educational goal (Bailin & Siegel 2003; Scheffler 1965, 1973 [1989]; Siegel 1988, 1997, 2005, 2017). Catherine Z. Elgin (1999a,b) and Duncan Pritchard (2013, 2016; Carter & Pritchard 2017) independently insisted that understanding be the fundamental goal.

Pritchard`s view combines understanding with intellectual virtue; Jason Baehr (2011) consistently advocates the promotion of intellectual virtues as a fundamental epistemic goal of education. This set of views continues to give rise to ongoing discussion and debate. (The complex literature is collected in Carter and Kotzee 2015, summarized in Siegel 2018, and usefully analyzed in Watson 2016.) It should also serve to inspire and guide educational plans, programs and processes in each particular environment. Educational progressivism is the belief that education should be based on the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. Progressives, like proponents of most educational theories, claim to rely on the best available theories of scientific learning. Most progressive educators believe that children learn as if they were scientists by following a process similar to John Dewey`s model of learning known as the “inquiry model”:[43] 1) Becoming aware of the problem. 2) Define the problem. 3) Propose hypotheses to solve it. 4) Evaluate the consequences of assumptions from your own experience. 5) Test the most likely solution. [4] First, what are the aims and/or functions of education (the aims and functions are not necessarily the same)? Many objectives were proposed; A short list includes producing knowledge and knowledgeable students, promoting curiosity and curiosity, enhancing understanding, expanding imagination, student civilization, promoting rationality and/or autonomy, and developing related care, concerns, and related dispositions and attitudes in students (see Siegel 2007 for a longer list).